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Bologna Milan Conference Summary


Dear Colleagues,  


It is my pleasure to submit to you a summary of the proceedings of the International Conference on   Judicial Independence   in a Globalized Legal Culture: The Use of Foreign and Transnational Precedents by National Supreme Courts, which took place in Bologna and Milan, and a copy of the report of the conference program.


We are very grateful to the institutions which sponsored and organized the conference in Bologna and Milan; Department of Legal Studies, Bocconi University of Milan, Faculty of Political Science University of Bologna, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Faculty of Law, and University of Cambridge Centre for Public Law. 


Special thanks are due to the Italian Co-Chairs who organized the Conference:

Professor Daniela Cavallini, University of Bologna

Professor Guiseppe Ferrari, Bocconi University of Milan

Professor Arianna Vedaschi, Bocconi University of Milan


The first part of the Conference took place in Bologna, from June 4-6, and included the Welcome Addresses to the conference, and presentations on the topics of Globalized Culture of Judicial Independence; Foreign Cases in National Courts, American Perspectives, European and South American Experience Views from Additional Perspectives, as well as a Discussion on the Amendments of Mt. Scopus International Standards of Judicial Independence and the debate on Global Code of judicial Ethics.


The second part of the conference convened in Milan, on the 6th of June. There was another discussion on the Amendments of Mt Scopus International Standards of Judicial Independence, and debate on Global Code of judicial Ethics .This is in addition to concluding remarks of the conference. The Judicial Code of Ethics was approved. Also, the Mt. Scopus Standards were amended by adding sections 5.8, 5.9 as follows:


  1. Every jurisdiction should establish citizens’ complaints procedure   to allow citizens to submit complaints against misconduct or improper conduct of judges. The panel of the review body of the complaints must include lay-people who are not judges or former judges; they shall be the majority of the panel.


  1. To assist in the implementation and interpretation of the code it is strongly recommended that each jurisdiction shall establish advisory committee on ethics which shall receive enquiries from judges and other professional authorities regarding questions of ethics and conduct.



During the conference, we discussed and approved amendments to the Mt Scopus Standards, and approved  a global judicial ethics code that was discussed in the Moscow Conference in 2014. This code is to be called the Bologna Milano Global Code of Judicial Ethics.


1. Bologna Milano Global Code of Judicial Ethics:


In Ghent and in San Diego it was resolved, at the suggestion of Marcel Storme, to embark upon a project to develop a global judicial ethics code. It will be done in two parts. One part will deal with conduct on the bench and the other or the conduct off the bench  i.e . the rules governing the conduct outside the judicial  official duties.


Please see Appendix B for the Global Code of Judicial Ethics.  


2. Upcoming events:


  1. Coming Conference in Krakow at the  School of the Judiciary, Poland, to be held on 15-17 January 2016,

Co-Chairs: Professor Fryderyk Zoll. and Dr Elwira Macierzynska-Franaszczyk


  1. The Conference after that will  be held in Beijing, China  in   Bihang University   date to be announced .

Collaborators: Professor Guiguo Wang and Professor Liu Hao.



  1. Book 4 in the Culture of Judicial Independence Series of Books has been approved for publication by Brill.

The title of the book :

Shimon shetreet, ed. Culture of Judicial Independence in a Globalized Legal Culture

The colleagues who wish their Bologna and Milan Conference papers to be considered for publication in this volume please send me their papers for reviewby the review committee .



  1. Re-nomination for Nobel Peace Prize  of JIWP  Judicial Independence Association

It was resolved toagain nominate for Nobel Peace Prizeof JIWPJudicial Independence Association .



Once again, I wish to express our deep thanks to all the participants in the conference and the institutions that sponsored the conference and supported the project in making such a successful conference in Bologna and Milan.


I look forward to seeing many of you in Krakow this January 2016



The organizing institutions:


The International Association of Judicial Independence and World Peace was founded in 1982 and is one of the most reputed international organizations, which unites practicing lawyers, competent experts in law and incumbent judges around the world. The work of the Association is focused on drafting international standards of judicial independence, supporting culture of peace in all states, promoting the ideals of peace, democracy, freedom and liberty by strengthening and maintaining judicial independence in all its aspects. The Association participated in drafting a number of international documents which are now recognized and applicable in many jurisdictions of the world (Minimum Code of Judicial Independence (in cooperation with the International Bar Association, New Delhi, 1982), Montreal Declaration on the Independence of Justice (Montreal, 1983). The Association‘s outstanding contribution to the advancement of law was evidenced by the Candidacy of the Association for Nobel peace prize in 2013. The Association was honored with the right to claim such prize for conducting the International Project on Judicial Independence, which is the result of over  30 years of intensive work in this area .



The University of Cambridge is one of the world's oldest universities and leading academic centers, and a self-governed community of scholars. Its reputation for outstanding academic achievement is known world-wide and reflects the intellectual achievement of its students, as well as the world-class original research carried out by the staff of the University and the Colleges.


The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, founded in 1918 and opened officially in 1925, is Israel’s premier university as well as its leading research institution. The Hebrew University is ranked internationally among the 100 leading universities in the world and first among Israeli universities.


The origins of the University of Bologna go way back, and it is considered to be the oldest university in the Western world. Its history is intertwined with that of the great names of science and literature; it is a keystone and a point of reference for European culture.


Bocconi University in Milan is considered to be among the top 10 best business schools in Europe. It is also among the top 25 best institutions in the world in the fields of Economics, Econometrics, Accounting and Finance in the latest QS World University Rankings. It also ranked 25th worldwide in the 2014 QS 'Social Sciences and Management' Faculty Rankings. 



Kindest regards,


Prof. Shimon Shetreet

President, International Association of Judicial Independence

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